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Love for Sale (1930)

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Origin and Chart Information
“Bechet uses all his tricks--bent notes, glissandi, growls, double-time and cross-time phrases--proving there is more to jazz improvisation than pyrotechnics.”

- Chris Tyle

Rank 30
Words and Music Cole Porter

On December 9, 1930, Charles Darnton of the New York Evening World wrote,

...“Love for Sale,” as sung by Kathryn Crawford, June Shafer, Ida Pearson, and Stella Friend, was in the worst possible taste.

That same day in the New York Herald Tribune, Percy Hammond reported,

A frightened vocalist, Miss Kathryn Crawford, sings a threnody entitled “Love for Sale” in which she impersonated a lily of the gutters ...When and if we ever get a censorship, I will give odds it will frown upon such an honest thing.

The previous night Darnton and Hammond had attended the opening of the Broadway musical, The New Yorkers, at the Broadway Theatre, during which Crawford introduced Cole Porter’s “Love for Sale.”

 

More on Kathryn Crawford at JazzBiographies.com
 

In 1924 B.S. Moss had built the colossal Colony Theater to present vaudeville and movies. In 1930 he converted it to a legitimate theater that boasted “the magnitude, luxury and courtesy of the theatre with the comforts and charm of the drawing room.”

Moss chose The New Yorkers as the first production to be staged in his palatial playhouse, the newly renamed Broadway.

The New Yorkers was based upon a story by E. Ray Goetz and Peter Arno, the latter a cartoonist who provided cover art for the New Yorker. Starring Frances Williams, Charles King, Hope Williams, Ann Pennington, Richard Carle, Marie Cahill, Fred Waring’s Pennsylvanians, and Jimmy Durante it was typical of most ‘30s musicals, its flimsy plot centering on the escapades of a society girl who falls in love with a bootlegger. Hopes ran high with a great cast and the Cole Porter music and lyrics, but only the cream of the crop would survive the onset of the depression, and the show was closed by early May after 168 performances.

The infamous highlight of The New Yorkers featured Kathryn Crawford and three girl friends singing “Love for Sale” in front of Reuben’s Restaurant. A white prostitute singing candidly about her profession was too much for 1930 audiences, the same year the motion picture industry felt it necessary to announce the Hays Code.

In an effort to defuse the moral outrage, the authors changed both the singer and the scene. In January, 1931, Crawford was replaced by Elizabeth Welch, an African American singer, who sang the same song with the same girlfriends in front of the Cotton Club in Harlem. Apparently the greater immorality of the switch was lost on many.

“Love for Sale” appeared on the pop charts in February, 1931, with Libby Holman’s recording rising to number five. A few weeks later, Fred Waring’s Pennsylvanians’ rendition, with vocals by the Three Waring Girls, climbed to number fourteen. A few years later, in 1939, a recording of the song by Hal Kemp and His Orchestra, with vocals by the Smoothies, climbed to number fourteen on the pop charts.

 

Chart information used by permission from
Joel Whitburn's Pop Memories 1890-1954
 

As a rule, less radio play translates to fewer record sales, but when “Love for Sale” was banned from the radio, the song only gained in popularity. Not only did Walter Winchell promote it in his column but the ban itself proved alluring to the record buying public.

The New Yorkers also contained Cole Porter’s “Go Into Your Dance,” which became a hit by Johnny Green and His Orchestra, and “Where Have You Been?” charting with Emil Coleman and His Orchestra.

“Love for Sale” is often called a melancholy ballad, a prostitute’s lament, and Richard Rodgers termed it the “... bitter exhortation of a streetwalker.” On the other hand, some renditions strike critics as catchy or even fun. Alec Wilder was not one of them, declaring “...the attempt of its lyrics to prettify a rather drab profession embarrasses me.”

It may be the subject of prostitution that colors critics’ reactions to the song, as Porter’s lyrics, like a hardened streetwalker, show little emotion; there is very little said that either prettifies or laments. The phrases that are revealing seem to cancel each other out: “unspoiled” is negated by “soiled,” and “Appetizing young love” is diminished by “I’ve been through the mill of love,” which in turn is trivialized by the clever rhyming, “Old love, new love, every love but true love.” Porter’s impassive account of streetwalking might produce several reactions, depending on one’s point of view. A lack of self-pity and regret imply moral indifference, an affront to those who condemn such behavior, while a lack of joy may lead others to interpret Porter’s lyrics as a melancholic lament.

 

More on Cole Porter at JazzBiographies.com
 

Beyond the written lyrics, the vocal deliveries of “Love for Sale” vary widely. Dinah Washington growls and belts; Mel Torme (with appropriately altered lyrics) scats; Diane Schuur closes an up-tempo rendition with backup singers repeating, “Got a little bit of love for sale”; and Ella Fitzgerald leaves you with the feeling that you have just heard another beautiful love song.

“Love for Sale” is musically a well-constructed composition, drawing praise even from those who have contempt for its lyrics. Its unusual form, minor key, and complex chord progressions make it attractive to jazz instrumentalists and vocalists alike, many of whom have recorded it numerous times.

More information on this tune...

Charles Schwartz
Cole Porter: A Biography
Da Capo Press; 1st Pbk edition
Paperback: 365 pages


(Porter biographer Schwartz offers two pages on the song including its history and an analysis of its controversial lyric.)
See the Reading and Research panel below for more references.

- Jeremy Wilson

Music and Lyrics Analysis

Musical analysis of “Love for Sale”

Original Key Two flats; “A1” is Bb minor, while“A2” is Bb major. “A3” starts in Bb minor, switching to the parallel major halfway through. “B” is a false key change to Db major
Form A1 - A2 – B – A3 (the last “A” is really “A1” for the first four measures, “A2” for the last). Cole Porter wrote an eight measure tag at the end, but this is not usually performed by present-day artists.
Tonality “A” sections about 50/50 between major and minor; “B” primarily major.
Movement Steps and skips in both directions over the range of an octave and a fifth; no large leaps.

Comments     (assumed background)

Slow harmonic rhythm with many sustained notes in the melody makes this an ideal tune for improvising over several different changes. The chord progression is logical, using the circle of fifths in major and minor and tri-tone substitutions and common-tone diminished (of half-diminished, i.e. minor 7thchords with a flatted fifth) for smooth modulations. Although not noted in Porter’s original score, chord extensions such as the 11th and 13th appear at significant points in the melody, particularly mm. 47-48 and mm.60-63.
K. J. McElrath - Musicologist for JazzStandards.com

Check out K. J. McElrath’s book of Jazz Standards Guide Tone Lines at his web site (www.bardicle.com).
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Soundtrack information
“Love for Sale” was included in these films:
  • The Band Wagon (1953)
  • National Lampoon’s Vacation (1983, Chevy Chase)
  • Torch Song Trilogy (1988, Harvey Fierstein)
  • In Too Deep (1990, Santha Press, The Jextet)
  • Sphere (1998, Arthur Lyman)
  • De-Lovely (2004, Vivian Green)
And on stage:
  • The New Yorkers (1930, Kathryn Crawford, The Three Girl Friends) Broadway musical
  • Cole (1974, Angela Richards) London revue
  • R.S.V.P. The Cole Porters (1974)
  • Unsung Cole (1977) Off-Broadway
  • A Swell Party (1991, Martin Smith) London revue
Reading and Research
Additional information for "Love for Sale" may be found in:

William G. Hyland
The Song Is Ended: Songwriters and American Music, 1900-1950
American Philological Association
Hardcover: 336 pages


(1 paragraph including the following types of information: history and lyric analysis.)

David Ewen
American Songwriters: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary
H. W. Wilson
Hardcover: 489 pages


(1 paragraph including the following types of information: history and performers.)

Alec Wilder
American Popular Song: The Great Innovators, 1900-1950
Oxford University Press; Reprint edition
Hardcover: 576 pages


(2 paragraphs including the following types of information: music analysis.)

Thomas S. Hischak
The American Musical Theatre Song Encyclopedia
Greenwood Press
Hardcover: 568 pages


(1 paragraph including the following types of information: summary.)

Max Morath
The NPR Curious Listener's Guide to Popular Standards
Perigee Books
Paperback: 235 pages


(1 paragraph including the following types of information: history and performers.)

Charles Schwartz
Cole Porter: A Biography
Da Capo Press; 1st Pbk edition
Paperback: 365 pages


(2 pages including the following types of information: history and lyric analysis.)

Robert Kimball, Brendan Gill
Cole: A Biographical Essay
Overlook Press
Hardcover: 283 pages


(Includes the following types of information: song lyrics.)

Robert Gottlieb, Robert Kimball
Reading Lyrics
Pantheon
Hardcover: 736 pages


(Includes the following types of information: song lyrics.)
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Music & Lyrics Analysis
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Reading & Research

Getting Started
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Jazz History Notes

Sidney Bechet was the first great jazz soloist on the saxophone. His instrument was the soprano, which he played with a heavy vibrato to compensate for the instrument’s tuning difficulties. His sound is anathema to many modern jazzmen weaned on John Coltrane’s soprano playing. Bechet’s approach is from a different era, where jazzmen were less concerned with chord changes than probing the emotional depths of a song.

Bechet recorded “Love for Sale” in 1947, playing one chorus over the course of three-and-a-half minutes (the tune hadn’t caught on with jazz players, no doubt due to its awkward length of 72 bars). Bechet uses all his tricks--bent notes, glissandi, growls, double-time and cross-time phrases--proving there is more to jazz improvisation than pyrotechnics.

Chris Tyle - Jazz Musician and Historian


Sidney Bechet
Ken Burns Collection: Sidney Bechet
Sony 61441

Getting Started
This section suggests definitive or otherwise significant recordings that will help jazz students get acquainted with “Love for Sale.” These recordings have been selected from the Jazz History and CD Recommendations sections.

“Love for Sale” has had many different interpretations through the years and numerous wonderful recordings. Among vocal versions, Dinah Washington’s fine performance (After Hours with Miss D) stands out and really explores the song’s essence. Instrumental versions have tended to be taken at relaxed medium tempos, epitomized by Cannonball Adderley’s classic 1958 version with Miles Davis (Somethin’ Else), though there are some great up-tempo performances as well, notably Dexter Gordon’s 1962 version (Go!).

Noah Baerman - Jazz Pianist and Educator

CD Recommendations for This Tune
Click on any CD for more details at Amazon.com
Miles Davis and John Coltrane
The Complete Columbia Recordings
2004 Sony 65833
Original recording 1958
This track features the classic 1958 Davis sextet with John Coltrane, Cannonball Adderley, Bill Evans, Paul Chambers and Jimmy Cobb. They brilliantly walk the tightrope between control and abandon on this wonderfully swinging rendition of “Love for Sale.”’
iTunes
Cecil Taylor
Love For Sale
1998 Blue Note 94107
Original recording 1959
Taylor, always a fascinating interpreter of standards, gives “Love for Sale”’ a brooding, unpredictable performance. His interaction with bassist Buell Neidlinger is particularly striking.
Ahmad Jamal
The Legendary Okeh and Epic Recordings
2005 Sony 93580
Original recording 1955
Jamal’s drummer-less trio was wonderfully swinging and tight, and their arrangement of “Love for Sale”’ is superb. One can hear why Miles Davis found this group so inspiring and subsequently recorded this tune himself.
Various Artists
Night and Day: The Cole Porter Songbook
1990 Verve 47202
Original recording 1962
This compilation includes Shirley Horn’s sultry take on “Love for Sale.”’ Though the track doesn’t feature her wonderful piano playing, the band is swinging and tasteful and leaves her enough room for her vocals to really shine.
iTunes
Eddie Harris
The In Sound/Mean Greens
1993 Atlantic 71515
Original recording 1965
At an extremely bright tempo, Harris shows his stunning ability to mix blues, bebop and modern language (in this case the use of melodic fourths). The rhythm section of Cedar Walton, Ron Carter and Billy Higgins swings mightily.
iTunes

- Noah Baerman

Mel Tormé
At the Red Hill/ Live at the Maisonette
1999, Collector's Choice 74
Original recording, 1962
Backed by a trio, vocalist Mel Torme gives the song his trademark treatment. Bubbling over with energy and with some wonderful rapid-fire scatting, Torme sings the song from an interesting perspective.
Benny Green, Russell Malone
Bluebird
Telarc

This piano/guitar duo sparkles with telepathic skill as they toss the lead back and forth. Their deep sense of musical history embellishes “Love for Sale” with jaunty new life.

- Sandra Burlingame

Cannonnball Adderley
Somethin' Else
1999, Blue Note 95329
Original recording, 1958
Saxophonist Adderley gets some stellar assistance from trumpeter Miles Davis on this unhurried reading of the “Love for Sale.”’ Davis’ solo is inspired, and drummer Art Blakey throws in some inventive riffs.
iTunes
Dinah Washington
After Hours with Miss D
2004 Verve 9402
Original recording 1954
Singer Dinah Washington is sweet as honey one moment and growling with passion the next. A very sensual and bluesy reading of the song.
iTunes
Dexter Gordon
Go!
1999, Blue Note 98794
Original recording, 1962
Saxophonist Gordon delivers a wonderful, up-tempo, be-bop reading of the song. On occasion the driving rhythm section breaks into a Latin beat, and the overall feeling is a joyous one, much at odds with the original sentiment of the song.
iTunes

- Ben Maycock

Written by the Same Composer(s)...
This section shows the jazz standards written by the same writing team.

Cole Porter

Year Rank Title
1930 8 What Is This Thing Called Love?
1930 30 Love for Sale
1932 33 Night and Day
1935 74 Just One of Those Things
1944 119 I Love You
1936 122 Easy to Love
1934 139 I Get a Kick Out of You
1936 160 I've Got You Under My Skin
1942 188 You'd Be So Nice to Come Home To
1937 209 In the Still of the Night
1944 220 Ev'ry Time We Say Goodbye
1935 247 Begin the Beguine
1953 279 It's All Right with Me
1939 290 I Concentrate on You
1954 356 All of You
1950 390 From This Moment On
1938 410 Get Out of Town
1948 443 So in Love (Am I)
1934 509 All Through the Night
1953 553 I Love Paris
1938 584 My Heart Belongs to Daddy
1929 734 You Do Something to Me
1934 754 Anything Goes
1941 773 Ev'rything I Love
1928 797 Let's Do It (Let's Fall in Love)
1937 909 At Long Last Love
1941 910 Dream Dancing
1937 939 Rosalie
1934 940 You're the Top

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